Kongo Kingdom
BRIEF HISTORY: African kingdom in present Angola, discovered by the Portuguese in the late 15th century. The kingdom was composed of 6 provinces: Mpemba, Mbata, Nsundi, Mpangu, Mbemba and Soyo, plus 4 vassal kingdoms: Loango, Cacongo and Ngoye, at the North of the Congo river, and Ndongo, at the South of the Congo river. The kingdom was disintegrated at the end of the 17th century, as a result of civil war and Angola became a Portuguese colony until 1975.

SOURCES:

a.. Olivier de Bouveignes, Les anciens rois du Congo, Grands Lacs, Namur, Belgium 1948
b.. Jan Vansina, Les anciens royaume de la savane, Institut de recherches économiques et sociales, Université Lovanium, Léopoldville, République du Congo 1965, Collection Etudes sociologiques n° 1
c.. R.F.Tapsell, Monarch Rulers Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World, Thames and Hudson, London 1983
d.. Jeune Afrique n° 1910-1911, 13 au 26 août 1997
e.. L'Autre Afrique, du 8 au 14 octobre 1997
RELATED WEBSITE: Rulers http://rulers.org/angotrad.html

RELIGION: Roman Catholic

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES:
Head of the Royal Family: HH The Mani Kongo (King of Kongo), Ntotila a Ntinu ne Kongo (this latter title according to Rulers). The Portuguese did not want to recognize the qualification of Alteza (HH) since this implied that the King was not a vassal of the King of Portugal but acceeded to the qualification of Senhor (Lord).
Heir: The Nelumbo
Other members of the Royal Family: Infante (for the descendants of King Afonso I)
 

SUCCESSION: The Mani Kongo (King of Kongo) was elected by a council of six, headed by the Marquess of Vunta (Mani Kabunga) who was an Infante i.e. a descendant of King Afonso I: generally he was not the son of the dead King and was already recognized as the Nelumbo (see below, Glossary). The new King had to be crowned by a Catholic priest. In fact, the succession was disputed among 2 lines of descendants of King Afonso I: the Kimulazu and the Kimpanzu.

ORDERS AND DECORATIONS:
O. Christ conferred 16th-17th century by delegation of the King of Portugal by the King of Kongo to himself, to the heir and to a few dignitaries of his Court

KONGOLESE NOBILITY: The Portuguese titles of Duke, Marquess, etc were adopted c1590.

GLOSSARY:
Fidalgo: free man
Infante: member of the Kongo royal family (descendant from King Afonso I)
Kimpanzu: one of the 2 royal clans pretending to the succession of the King
Kimulazu: one of the 2 royal clans pretending to the succession of the King
Mani Kabunga: head of the Crown Council, an Infante with the title of Marquess of Vunta (Mani Vunta, see above Succession)
Mani Kongo: King of Kongo
Mani Pemba: judge
Mani Vunta: Marquess of Vunta (see above)
Mbaji: capital city
Mbanza: village of 200 huts
Mushikongo: tribe of the Mbamba province
Mussorongo: tribe of the Sonyo county
Nelumbo: title of the Heir with the governorship of the capital city, San Salvador
 

HEAD OF THE ROYAL FAMILY: Dona Isabel Maria da Gama, Regent 11/7/1957-9/9/1962 and since 10/1962, X Dom Antonio III Afonso, King of Congo (Manikongo) 16/8/1955-11/7/1957, +1957

According to Burke's, HE Dom Jose Eduardo dos Santos Kasakanga, Pres of the Republic of Angola and Cdr in Chief of the Armed Forces (FAPLA) since 20/9/1979, confirmed by elections in 9/1992, Pres of the Ngiwizako party, Leader of MPLA 1979, First Deputy Prime Min ?-1978, Min of Planning, Min of External Relations 11/11/1975, Foreign Affairs Sec of MPLA 6/1975, mbr of the Central Cttee of MPLA 9/1974, mbr of the Readjustment Commission, head of finances 1974, mbr of Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 1961, educ Baku Petroleum and Gas Institute, USSR 1963-1969, °Luanda 28/8/1942. Son of a bricklayer. Grandson (?) of King Dom Pedro VII (This view is not shared by other sources).
 

PREDECESSORS:
Ntinu Nimi a Lukeni, 1st King

4 Kings

Nzinga a Kuwu, renamed Joâo I on his conversion to Christianity 3/5/1491, 6th King of Mbanza Congo before 1484-1506, +1506. Father of:

Mbemba a Nzinga, renamed Afonso I on his conversion to Christianity c1491, 7th King of Mbanza Congo 1506-1543, styled: by the grace of God, King of Congo, of Loango, of Cacongo and of Ngoyo, below and beyond Zaïre, Lord of the Ambundo and of Angola, of Aquisima, of Musunu, of Matamba, of Mulili, of Musuku and of the Anziques, of the Conquest, of Pangu Alumbu, etc., received a coat of arms from the King of Portugal, +1543. Father of:

Nkanga Mbemba, renamed Dom Pedro I on his conversion to Christianity, 8th King of Mbanza Congo 1543-deposed 1545,

Dom Francisco I, 9th King of Mbanza Congo 1545,

Dom Diego I, 10th King of Mbanza Congo 1545-1561, +1561. Son of Nzinga Mbemba (1st daughter of 7th King Dom Afonso I) and brother of:

Dom Afonso II, 11th King of Mbanza Congo 1561, +1561. Brother of:

Dom Bernado I, 12th King of Mbanza Congo 1561-1566, +1566,

Dom Henrique I, 13th King of Mbanza Congo 1566-1567, +1567,

Dom Alvaro I, 14th King of Congo (Rex Congi) 1567-1576 or 1587, styled: by the grace of God, King of Congo, of Angola, of Matamba, of Kisama, of Muyilu, of Muswalu, of Musuku, of the Anziques, of Sumba, of Mbengu, Lord of the Seven Kingdoms of Congo, of Rio Mullaza, of Cacongo, of Ango, of Rio Zaïre and of the Conquest, +1587, X Catarina. Son of Dona Isabel Lukeni lua Mbemba (2nd daughter of 7th King Afonso I), son in law of 13th King Dom Henrique I and father of:

Dom Alvaro II, 15th King of Congo (Rex Congi) 1576 or 1587-1614, Kt Military O. Christ (Portugal) 10/3/1609, +1614.

Regency of the Duke of Mbamba 1614 (2 months only)

Dom Bernado II, 16th King of Congo 1614-1615. Half-brother or son of 15th King Alvaro II,

Dom Alvaro III, 17th King of Congo 1614 or 1615-5/1622, +5/1622. Son of 15th King Dom Alvaro II, son in law of the Duke of Mbamba and/or descendant of the 2nd daughter of 7th King Afonso I,

Dom Pedro II Afonso, 18th King of Congo (Rey de Congo) 5/1622-1624, Kt Military O. Christ (Portugal), +1624. Son of Nkanga Mbika ne Ntumba Mbemba, Duke of Nsundi (son of Dona Anna Ntumba Mbemba, 3rd daughter of 7th King Afonso I) and father of 3 sons among whom:

Ne Mbemba Nzinga a Nkuwu a Ntinu, ruled under the name of Dom Garcia I, 19th King of Congo 1624-deposed 4/1626, Duke of Mbamba before 1624, °1604, +between 23 and 26/6/1626,,

Dom Ambrosio, 20th King of Congo 4/1626-1631, previously named Ne Ntumba Mbemba

Dom Alvaro IV, 21st King of Congo 1631-25/2/1636, °1618, +25/2/1636. Son of 17th King Dom Alvaro III and uncle of:

Dom Alvaro V, 22nd King of Congo 25/2/1636-8/1636, +8/1636,

Dom Alvaro VI, 23rd King of Congo 8/1636-1642, lost the region of Makuta to the Count of Sonyo 1637 and Luanda to the Dutch 1641, +1642,

Dom Garcia II Afonso, 24th King of Congo 1642-1660 or 1661, previously named Garcia Okimbaku, Marquess of Kiowa, first King to be crowned, abandoned his rights on Luanda to the Portuguese and exchanged ambassadors with Portugal, +1663. Father of (2nd son):

Dom Antonio I, 25th King of Congo 1660 or 1661-1665, +battle of Ambuila 1665,

Dom Alvaro VII, 26th King of Congo 1665-1666, from the Nimi na Mpangu clan,

Dom Alvaro VIII, 27th King of Congo 1666, from the Nimi na Mpangu clan,

Dom Afonso III, 28th King of Congo 1666-1667,

Dom Pedro III, 29th King of Congo 1667-1683, X Dona Anna, +Ngondo 1860, daughter of 24th King Dom Garcia II Afonso,

Dom Rafael, 30th King of Congo 1669-1674,

Dom Alvaro IX, 31st King of Congo 1669-...., from the Kinimi a Mbemba clan

Dom Daniel, 32nd King of Congo 1674-1678, originally named Daniel de Guzman ne Miyala Mpangu. Descendant of 7th King Afonso I and brother of:

Dom Joâo II, 33rd King of Congo 1683-1717, originally named Joâo ne Nsuki a Ntamba

Dom Pedro IV, 34th King of Congo 1709-1718, from the Nsanu Mbemba clan

Dom Pedro V, 35th King of Congo 1718-.....

Dom Henrique III Afonso Nlengi, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1793-1802

Dom Alvaro XI Afonso Kafvasa, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1802

Dom Garcia V Afonso Ne Nkanga a Nvembi, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1802-1830

Dom Andre II Afonso, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1830-....

Dom Andre III Afonso Ndondele Beya, King of Congo (Manikongo) ....-1842

Dom Henrique IV Afonso Lunga, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1842-1858

Dom Alvaro XII Afonso, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1858-1859

Dom Pedro V Afonso, King of Congo (Manikongo) 7/8/1859-14/2/1891

Dom Alvaro XIII Afonso Mfutila, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1891-1896

Dom Henrique Afonso Nteye Kpage, Regent 1896-1901

Dom Pedro VI Afonso Mvemba, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1912-1915

Dom Manuel III Afonso Kiditu, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1912-1915

Dom Alvaro XIV Afonso Nzinga, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1915-1923

Dom Pedro VII Afonso, King of Congo (Manikongo) 1923-17/4/1955, +1955

Dom Antonio III Afonso, King of Congo (Manikongo) 16/8/1955-11/7/1957 (see above, Head of the Royal Family)

Dona Isabel Maria da Gama, Regent 11/7/1957-9/9/1962 and since 10/1962

Dom Pedro VIII Afonso Mansala, King of Congo (Manikongo) 9/9/1962-10/1962, +10/1962 p> Pour réagir à ce texte au forum

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